Listed here are standard formats and examples for basic information that is bibliographic by the American Psychological Association (APA). For more information on the APA format, see http.org that is://www.apastyle.
Your directory of works cited must start at the conclusion of the paper on a new page with the centered title, References. Alphabetize the entries in your list because of the author’s last name, using the letter-by-letter system (ignore spaces and other punctuation.) Only the initials associated with the first and middle names are given. If the author’s name is unknown, alphabetize because of the title, ignoring any A, An, or The.
For dates, spell out the names of months into the text of your paper, but abbreviate them in the directory of works cited, with the exception of May, June, and July. Use either the day-month-year style (22 July 1999) or the month-day-year style (July 22, 1999) and stay consistent. Aided by the month-day-year style, make sure to add a comma following the year unless another punctuation mark goes there.
Underlining or Italics?
When reports were written on typewriters, the names of publications were underlined because most typewriters had absolutely no way to print italics. If you write a bibliography by hand, you need to still underline the names of publications. But, if you use a pc, then publication names must be in italics because they are below. Check always with your instructor regarding their preference of utilizing italics or underlining. Our examples use italics.
All APA citations should use hanging indents, that is, the very first type of an entry should be flush left, additionally the second and subsequent lines should really be indented 1/2″.
Capitalization, Abbreviation, and Punctuation
The APA guidelines specify using sentence-style capitalization for the titles of books or articles, therefore you should capitalize just the first word of a title and subtitle. The exceptions to this rule could be periodical titles and proper names in a title which should still be capitalized. The periodical title is run in title case, and is followed by the amount number which, utilizing the title, can be italicized.
If you have more than one author, use an ampersand (&) before the name regarding the last author. If there are many more than six authors, list only the first one and use et al. for the others.
Place the date of publication in parentheses just after the name associated with the author. Place a period after the closing parenthesis. Usually do not italicize, underline, or put quotes round the titles of shorter works within longer works.
Allen, T. (1974). Vanishing wildlife of The United States. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society.
Boorstin, D. (1992). The creators: a reputation for the heroes regarding the imagination. New York: Random House.
Nicol, A. M., & Pexman, P. M. (1999). Presenting your findings: a guide that is practical creating tables. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Searles, B., & Last, M. (1979). A reader’s guide to science fiction. New York: Facts on File, Inc.
Toomer, J. (1988). Cane. Ed. Darwin T. Turner. New York: Norton.
Encyclopedia & Dictionary
Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In the brand new encyclopedia britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.
Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
Pettingill, O. S., Jr. (1980). Falcon and Falconry. World book encyclopedia. (pp. 150-155). Chicago: World Book.
Tobias, R. (1991). Thurber, James. Encyclopedia americana. (p. 600). New York: Scholastic Library Publishing.
Magazine & Newspaper Articles
Format: Author’s last name, first initial. (Publication date). Article title. Periodical title, volume number(issue number if available), inclusive pages.
Note: Do not enclose the title in quotation marks. Put a period of time after the title. If a periodical includes a volume number, italicize it and then provide the page range (in regular type) without “pp.” If the periodical does not use volume numbers, such as newspapers, use p. or pp. for page numbers. Note: Unlike other periodicals, p. or pp. precedes page numbers for a newspaper reference in APA style.
Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896.
Henry, W. A., III. (1990, 9) april. Making the grade in the current schools. Time, 135, 28-31.
Kalette, D. (1986, July 21). California town counts town to big quake. USA paper writing service Today, 9, p. A1.
Kanfer, S. (1986, July 21). Heard any books that are good? Time, 113, 71-72.
Trillin, C. (1993, February 15). Culture shopping. New Yorker, pp. 48-51.
Website or Webpage
Online document: Author’s name. (Date of publication). Title of work. Retrieved month day, year, from full URL
Note: When citing Internet sources, refer to the specific document that is website. If a document is undated, use “n.d.” (for no date) just after the document title. Break a URL that is lengthy would go to another line after a slash or before a period. Continually check your references to online documents. There’s absolutely no period following a URL. Note: if you fail to find a few of this information, cite what is available.
Devitt, T. (2001, 2) august. Lightning injures four at music festival. The Why? Files. Retrieved 23, 2002, from http://whyfiles.org/137lightning/index.html january
Dove, R. (1998). Lady freedom among us. The Electronic Text Center. Retrieved 19, 1998, from Alderman Library, University of Virginia website: http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/subjects/afam.html june
Note: If a document is contained within a big and complex website (such as for example that for a university or a government agency), identify the host organization plus the relevant program or department before giving the URL for the document itself. Precede the URL with a colon.